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Showing posts with label Drama. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Drama. Show all posts

Friday, 9 December 2016

Types or forms of drama

Types or Forms of Drama





Tragedy ~

This is a type of drama whose atmosphere is often serious and tensed with an unhappy ending often involving death. In tragedy, the protagonist who is often a highly place personalty, is entangled in a conflict or strugle which leads to his ruin or disappointment, The most important feature of tragedy is the sadness or deep feelings which the play is able to evoke and purge us of our emotion


Comedy can be define as a dramatic work that is light and humorous or satirica in tone, a amusing play with happy ending. The main feature of comedy is humour and the main types of comedy are farce, burlesque and satire.


Tragi-comedy is a play that combine both the element of comedy and tragedy, it has a serious tone and series of tense moments but events in play end on a note of relief.

Domestic Tragedy

This is another type of tragedy. It retains all the basic elements of tragedy but differs in its setting and characterization. In this form of tragedy the main character are middleclass people and their downfall take place within a family relationship, In the classical form of tragedy as discussed earlier, the characters are great personalities like kings, generals and princes whereas in a domestic tragedy, the characters are ordinary folk


This is a form of drama with fast moving action and funny little things. It has stock characters whose action lead them to brink of disaster, but they never really get into disaster. Farce is also a light-hearted play which which end on a happy note for everybody


This is another light-hearted play that highlights suspense and romantic sentiment, with characters who are usually either clearly good or clearly bad. In other to create excitement sensation and shock in the audience belief is downplayed. This form of drama often use music to underscore or heighten the emotion tone of a scene

History Play

History is also know as chronicle play, It can be define as a type of drama based on historical records.


This is the type of drama deal with controversial social issues in a realistic manner, it expose social ills, and stimulate thought and discussion.
One of the features of thesis is that it deals with problematic social issues through debates between characters on stage, This is also know as problem play

Realistic Drama

This is a play with attempts to retain, presents and maintain a notion of an actual everyday existence in content and presentation

Closet Drama

This term refers to a literary which takes the form of a play, but is not meant to be performed on stage. A closet drama is meant to be studied privately in a closet


Monodrama can be define as the dramatic action or speech rendered by only one character who enacts the presence of othe characters evev as they are not there. Monodrama is also know as Monologue


Featutes of Drama

Fetures of Drama

Characters or figures

Characters are the persons through whom the playwright communicates his ideas to the reader, The personality and image of a character is assessed through what the playwright says he does and what other character says about him. Character is the combination of the different qualities which a person has.

Types of Character

A Round Character

A Flat Character

A Round Character

A Round Character is that character who changes in the unfolding of the event, He is usually a complex character whose positionbis determined by desires, values and moral alternatives. These lead him into different directions he display new kinds of attitude when he is caught within the web of tension and do he is unpredictable.

A Flat Character

A Flat character's response, conceit and behavior are predictable. He does not grow psychologically or emotionally and so does not change in the events.


Characterization is the network of people animating the events in a story. It is the qualities that position the personalities of the character, if a character is a major character, he must play a dynamic role. Any changes a character undergoes must be logical for the sort of person the writer has drawn .


Plot can be define as the sequential arrangements of events in a creative work.
it shows the structure of the action as arranged to achieve certain emotional and artistic effect.
A plot begins with a kind of conflict ba point where the protagonist himself in a situation which pushes him into action, then series of futhee steps will follow. so plot is either simple or complex. plot is said to be complex when self-knowledge of a character is accompanied by reversal of fortune. A simple plot does not usually involve this complex process.


Dialogue can be define as the conversation or exchanging of ideas and opinion between two or more character in a play


Monologue can be define as a long speech by one actor, when a character speaks all by himself and some of his words are actually addressed to some absent fellow character.


This refers to a set of actors and actresses and other people involved in the production of a play


A playwright refers to as a piece of drama or play

Dramatis Personae

This is the sum total of all the perticipant in drama


The protagonist is the character that play the most prominet role in a play. The protagonist is also called hero or heroine


An antagonist is a character that opposes the protagonist, the character is seen as the opposite of protagonist


Conflict can be define as the basis of action between characters in a play it involves the protagonist and the antagonist in their rivalry and struggle for assertion of influrnce or relevance.


Flashback is a dramatic or literary technique which entails a recall of what had happened before. It is a device employed by the playwright by which the here-and-now of the play's events as interrupted by an action which is set to the past.
Its purpose is to create better understanding on current happenings, offer more information pertaining to the present state of the affairs of the drama, and also follow the memory of a character who tries to recollect past event.

Flashback can be achieved through
i. A dream state
ii. Character's recollection
iii. Narrator's interpolation of past event

Foreshadowing /Projection

It is the opposite of flashback, it refers to a technique whereby the playwright goes into the future in other to make us see the consequences of current action


Prologue can be define as the front piece - a kind of duction which precedes the real beginning of a story


Epilogue can be define as the clossing comment in a play which justifies an earllier course of action.

Stage Direction

They are the playwright's written instructuion about the actors, directors or crew and readers are to stage perform or imagine the play


Peripetial is a sudden reversal of fortune or change in circumtances of a major character, and the beginning of such a character tragic fall

Poetic drama

This refer to as a play wholly written in verse which can be performed or simply read as closed drama


This occurs when the audience in a tragic play purge bottled, up emotion, it occurs after watching the fall misfortune or even signs which serve as kind of therapy

Tragic Flaw / Hamartia

This term is simply refers to as character's flaw or error. Tragic flaw is the humanly unavoidable attribute in the tragic character which causes his downfall in a play

Dramatic Irony

This occur when the audience knows something that one or more of the characters is not aware of, audience have more knowledge about happenings in the play than member of of tthe cast on stage


Suspense is the anxiety band expectation in the reader/ audience of a play or novel as to how an event is likely to unfold. It raises a reader's interest and keeps him/her guessing as to what will happen next. The use of suspense in drama is as old as drama itself. Suspense keeps the reader interested and is usually achieved by withholding the resolution until the play end


This is a speech express by an actor on stage. It usually expresses the inward emotions of the actor purged out to himself


This refers to as 'the-actor-off-the-stage', his role is to assist the real actor on stage in carrying out their assigned performance roles, he reminds the actor/actresses thir lines, guides them when they stray off and generally assist them to make performance a success


The point of climax is ussually the highest point of dramatic tension, where a resolution of the knotty issues becomes inevitable.


Aside can be define as the speech by the character directrd to the audience to exclusion of fellow characters or actors in drama


Tyhis refers to as a group of actors in a play whose member act in unison and share thesame opinion


Tuesday, 16 February 2016

The analysis of all the symbols in othello

Handkerchief: In othello The handkerchief symbolizes different things to different characters. Since the handkerchief was the first gift Desdemona received from Othello, she keeps it about her constantly as a symbol of Othello’s love. Iago manipulates the handkerchief so that Othello comes to see it as a symbol of Desdemona herself—her faith and chastity. By taking possession of it, he is able to convert it into evidence of her infidelity. The symbol of the handkerchief is at the heart of the play's terrible irony. Given is a giftof true, honest, faithful love by Othello to Desdemona, it ultimately becomes a sign of Othello's jealousy, mistrust, and insecurity. One cannot trace this change in the symbol's significance without appreciating Iago's continual manipulation of Othello. Both the handkerchief and Desdemona remain pure and unchanged, however Iago is able to change Othello's perception of them. One of Shakespeare's recurring themes is the power of perception--Othello is willing to commit the most horrible of crimes based notupon facts, but upon his faulty interpretation of reality.

The Song “Willow”: Willow Song is another good symbol in Othello. Though it's just a song, it symbolizes Desdemona's similar doom to the Barbary maid who sang Willow, Willow, and was killed shortly after. Othello, at this point in the story, is plotting Desdemona's murder in her bed by strangulation. Since the Willow song was a song about infidelity and betrayal, it was a parallel directly to the case between Desdemona and Othello. The song’s lyrics suggest that both men and women are unfaithful to one another. To Desdemona, the song seems to represent a melancholy and resigned acceptance of her alienation from Othello’s affections, and singing it leads her to question Emilia about the nature and practice of infidelity.

Animals: Iago calls Othello a “Barbary horse,” an “old black ram,” and also tells Brabantio that his daughter and Othello are “making the beast with two backs” (I.i.117–118). In Act I, scene iii, Iago tells Roderigo, “Ere I would sayI would drown myself for the love of a guinea-hen, I would change my humanity with a baboon” (I.iii.312–313). He then remarks that drowning is for “cats and blind puppies” (I.iii.330–331). Cassio laments that, when drunk, he is “by and by a fool, and presently a beast!” (II.iii.284–285). Othello tells Iago, “Exchange me for a goat / When I shall turn the business of my soul / To such exsufflicate and blowed surmises” (III.iii.184–186). He later says that “[a] horned man’s a monster and a beast” (IV.i.59). Even Emilia, in the final scene, says that she will “play the swan, / And die

The Analysis and roles of desdemona, othello, cassio, iago, emilia and all characters inShakespeare’s ‘Othello’;

Othello: Othello is a general in the army of Venice.He is a Moor, a dark-skinned man born in Africa, and has risen through the ranks of the Venetian army through hard work and success in battle.He is a respected general, but less respected as a person, because of his dark skin and foreign roots.He is an honest man, and believes that people are honest.This makes him naive in many ways.Othello is a passionate man, and deeply loves Desdemona, even when he kills her. Iago uses Othello's trust in him to manipulate him, and Othello stops trusting in Desdemona,and begins to rely exclusively on Iago's advice.Desdemona was Othello's passion, and when she dies, he must die soon after, especially after he learns that she was innocent.

Desdemona: Desdemona is loyal, faithful, and passionately loves Othello.She is shrewd and wise, but is very subtle about it.She dies because she keeps blindingly faithful to Othello, and cannot understand why he believes her to be an adulterous.She asks Cassio to help her cheer up Othello, but Iago manipulates facts to make Othello even more jealous.She is blameless, and she dies tragically, so selfless as to deny that Othello has killed her in her dying breath.

Iago: Iago is Othello's sword-bearer.He has been passed over for the position of Lieutenant, and this draws out his evil nature.He feels that he has been wronged and cannot accept the position that Othello gives him.Iago orchestrates Othello's downfall out of malice and revenge, and it is worse because Iago coats his poisonous words in the appearance of truth.Othello has no reason to doubt Iago, and Iago is able to completely manipulate Othello and to control his actions.Othello kills Desdemona, but Iago is responsible.Iago is only concerned about himself and his position, and will sacrifice anyone to save himself and his interests.This is shown when he kills his own wife when it is discovered that he has been treacherous.

Emilia: Emilia is Desdemona's female servant.She is Iago's husband, and has a practical and shrewd sense about her that is more apparent than Desdemona's.Emilia urges Desdemona to confront Othello, and when she learns of Iago's treachery, she reveals him, even though it costs her life.She is a good friend and companion to Desdemona, but unfortunately she puts into motion the events that lead Othello to believe that he has seen proof of Desdemona's unfaithfulness.

Cassio: Cassio is Othello's choice for his new Lieutenant.Cassio travels from a different city, and his reputation is known in far lands.He is an up and coming soldier, and a good friend to Othello.Cassio and Desdemona try to help Othello's jealousy together in friendship, but due to Iago's clouding of Othello's perception, this leads him to think that they are having an affair.

The theme of Sexuality in Othello

Sexuality: Othello stands out among Shakespeare's works as the most troublingly sexual of all plays. Indeed, it is the issue of sex that causes the downfall of both Othello and Desdemona. In the opening scene, Iago and Roderigo awaken Brabantio to inform him of Desdemona's elopement. Their language is obscene and racist: "An old black ram / Is tupping your white ewe," Iago shouts, "Your daughter / and the Moor are making the beast with two backs."Further, Shakespeare calls attention to the nuptial night between Othello and Desdemona by having it interrupted several times, first in Venice when Othello is called to the Senate and later in Cyprus when Cassio stabs Montano. This serves to produce extreme sexual tension; in the scenes shared by Othello and Desdemona, their language is highly charged with interrupted desire. For Othello, thoughts of sexual infidelity are also at the heart of his total disintegration. After murdering Desdemona, the thoughts of her supposed promiscuity continue to eat at Othello. "Iago knows t hat she with Cassio hath the act of shame / A thousand times committed," Othello says in his own defense. The fear of cuckoldry runs deep in many of Shakespeare's plays; yet in most plays it is a matter of joke and play. In Othello, however, Shakespeare demonstrates how such fear, when attached with deeper issues of sexuality, can turn tragic.

The theme of love in othello by Shakespeare

Love: Love triumphs in Othello, but it’s a bitter victory. Desdemona never stops loving her husband, even when he accuses her of cheating on him, slaps her in public, calls her a whore, and strangles her to death. With her last breath, Desdemona chooses to blame herself for her death rather than implicate Othello. The strength of her love is particularly impressive, as it proves impervious to the machinations of Iago, the play’s villain. Iago does not believe in love; he reduces it in his mind to dirty desire. While his scheming destroys the central couple’s marriage and lives, what he cannot destroy is their love. The role of love in the play is further complicated by Othello’s debatable claim that he loved "not wisely, but too well." In this line, Othello reminds us that the passion of love outdoes the reason of logic.

The theme of jealousy in Othello

A theme in a literary work is a recurring, unifying subject or idea, a motif that allows us to understand more deeply the charactersand their world. In Othello, the major themes reflect the values and the motivations of the characters.

Jealousy: Traditionally, Othello was read as a cautionary tale about the destructive nature of the green- eyed monster, jealousy. Certainly, the play isfilled with examples of jealousy, each contributing to the claustrophobic atmosphere of plot and counterplot, all orchestrated by Iago. Iago himself attributes his hatred of Othello to numerous sorts of jealousy: he is jealous of Michael Cassio because hebelieves that Cassio has been promoted unjustly over him and because he believes that Cassio might have had an affair with his wife. Iago is jealous of Othello because he believes that Othello might have had sex with his wife and because he says that he loves Desdemona himself. It is almost as if Iago examines the various kinds of jealousy he finds in himself in order to exploit those jealousies in others. For example, he first manipulates Roderigo. Roderigo, in love with Desdemona, is very jealous of Othello and by extension of Cassio. His jealousy makes him an easy dupe for Iago's plotting. Likewise, Bianca is jealous of any woman in whom Cassio might be interested, and thus she also can be manipulated by Iago. Of course, the most destructive jealous ragethat Iago incites is that within Othello. Iago uses his own fear of cuckoldry as the basis for his plot against Othello. By projecting his own feelings (and a common cultural fear) onto Othello, he is able to convince Othello that what he fears most, Desdemona's betrayal, is a reality. It is jealousy that weakens Othello's mind and reason, thus rendering him increasingly vulnerable to Iago's plots.

Summary of Shakespeare’s ‘Othello’

The Analysis of Shakespeare’s ‘Othello’
Plot Summary
The play opens in Venice, Italy, at night. In the opening scene, Iago complains that Othello, his Commander, has passed him over to promote handsome Cassio to be his Lieutenant. He vows to get revenge. Iago first asks his friend Roderigo to tell Desdemona's father Brabantio that his daughter has left to marry Othello, a marriage Brabantio opposes because Othello is a Moor (an African). Brabantio confronts Othello, and they take their argument to the Duke, who has summoned Othello to ask him to sail to Cyprus to stop a Turkish invasion. Convinced by Othello and Desdemona that they love each other deeply despite their differences, the Duke gives Desdemona permissionto travel with Othello. By the time they reach Cyprus the foreign threat is gone.
Iago has Roderigo got Cassio drunk and draw him into a street fight. Iago has his revenge on Cassio when Othello strips Cassio of his rank for misbehavior. Then Iago decidesto make Othello believe his wife is unfaithful. He encourages Cassio to ask Desdemona to plead with Othello to be reinstated. Iago suggests to Othello that Desdemona is Cassio's lover. Trusting Iago and mad with jealousy, Othello promotes Iago and asks Iago to help him kill Cassio and Desdemona.

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